EUPHYLLIESAprile 18, 2021
Cyanobacteria: Cause and Remedies
Cyanobacteria What are cyanobacteria? These are unicellular organisms, also known as green / blue patinous algae, because like many algae, they tend to develop as a kind of blob, with colors ranging from green to red / blackish. They can cover in ideal conditions in a short time anything present in the aquarium, rocks, glass and in the most serious cases also sessile invertebrates (hard and soft corals, sponges, etc.). In reality they are not algae, but opportunistic photosynthetic bacteria (cyanobacteria) that proliferate wherever there are light conditions (even poor) and ideal nourishment. The photosynthetic activity evidenced by the numerous bubbles trapped in the viscous patina. They are more frequent in the marine aquarium as they prefer waters with a high concentration of calcium and high PH values, especially they proliferate in waters with high concentrations of nitrates and phosphates, due to poor management of both the cleaning of the tank and an incorrect diet of the guests. it contained (abundant feeding of food). It is not difficult to see its appearance after a sharp drop in the redox potential (ideal value between 200 and 250/280 MV) due to neglect of the ecosystem, mechanical prefilters left for too long, irregular or insufficient water changes, lamps that are not change regularly or in the case of LED lamps, cheap lamps with an altered spectrum, lack of cleaning of the base, etc. Even an overpopulation or the hosting of fish that later proved to be too large, can result in an excessive organic load, unsustainable for a good balance of the ecosystem.
The best solution to fight cyanobacteria is to prevent them, grafting the ideal conditions so that they do not develop or at least regress until they disappear or remain confined in small areas of the aquarium, they are however among the oldest organisms on the planet, eliminating them is not easy and not even necessary, if limited.
1) furnish the tank with good quality live rocks (Highly porous) so as to recreate the optimal environment of the nitrifying bacterial flora.
2) Maintain nitrates and phosphates always and constantly over time on minimum concentrations PO4 max 0.03 NO3 max 10 ml / l.
3) density not less than 1.023 (optimal between 1.024 and 1.025).
4) Keep the pH always above 8 and the kh never below 8 DKH (sudden or excessive changes in the latter can be a trigger for the appearance of cyanobacteria).
5) Use and dosage of high quality trace elements with particular attention to strontium, appreciated by corals, but also by cyanobacteria!.
6) Use of a good skimmer suitable for the size and population of the tank.
7) The use of movement pumps suitable for the volume of the tank positioned so as not to create stagnation.
8) Use of a lamp park consisting of at least one third of actinic lamps (the effect of green and red LEDs mounted on some new generation lamps is still controversial).
9) Timely replacement of the lamps with particular attention to the decay curve of the luminous intensity, if in doubt it is recommended to replace them every year.
10) Regular changes in keeping with the volume of the tank, strictly made with demineralized water and high quality salt free from NO3 and PO4.
11) Always and only use demineralized water with tds values close to 0 for topping up.
12) Scrupulous cleaning or replacement of all the mechanical filtering elements in which the battery flora has not established.
13) the regular use of an excellent bacterial strain both nitrifying and decomposing. In this way, a possible proliferation of "mutated" bacteria is thus no longer useful.
14) The adoption of a UVC lamp always on with the annual replacement of the internal lamp. (Here too there are different currents of thought, some there
consider fundamental in the fight against cyan some consider it useless).
Despite all these precautions, the problem can persist, then you can resort to "faster" alternative systems that act on the effect but not on the cause (often there is no certain cause, so the use of some products can be resolving without come on to find the tub invaded by cyan again).
1) Use of antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, undoubtedly effective against cyan but on the other hand also quite lethal for the nitrifying bacterial flora.
2) Oxygenated water or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), water from 2 to 4% by weight of oxygen (10 vol) must be used, therefore the commercial one at 3.6% by weight of oxygen is fine in a dose of 1ml for every 10 liters of the tank (1.5 ml in the most difficult cases), the hydrogen peroxide is mixed in about 1 liter of the aquarium water, the solution thus obtained must be sprayed on the patina and not on the invertebrates, even every day, until to the complete regression of the Ciano. "Beware an excessive dosage, it can be lethal for the entire ecosystem".
3) The use of products such as antired (aquamedic) and chemiclean gave excellent results immediately, alternatively Cyano Clean can be used in combination with A-Balance (korallen) for a targeted biological fight (even if in this case we will take longer).
The aforementioned report is the result of years of experience in the field and of in-depth studies in scientific and sector journals and books.
Article written by: Ciro Murino